During the 1970s and 1980s, Saddam Hussein's government spent a lot of money on new monuments, which included the al-Shaheed Monument. During her last week in Bagdad, the capital of Iraq, restrictions were placed on journalists making it dangerous to move around. Definition of capital of iraq in the Definitions.net dictionary. The city of Baghdad is located on a massive plain bisected by the Tigris River. [55] Many of the One Thousand and One Nights tales, widely known as the Arabian Nights, are set in Baghdad during this period. The same process was used to provide representative councils for the other communities in Baghdad Province outside of the city itself. Choose from 132 different sets of term:baghdad = capital of iraq. It was built under the supervision of the Barmakids. Sieges and wars in which Baghdad was involved are listed below: In 1058, Baghdad was captured by the Fatimids under the Turkish general Abu'l-Ḥārith Arslān al-Basasiri, an adherent of the Ismailis along with the 'Uqaylid Quraysh. In May 2010, a new residential and commercial project nicknamed Baghdad Gate was announced. The city covers a total area of 204.2 sq. Baghdad (/ˈbæɡdæd, bəɡˈdæd/; Arabic: بَغْدَاد‎ [baɣˈdaːd] (listen)) is the capital of Iraq and one of the largest cities in the Arab world, and compared to its large population it has a small area at just 673 square kilometers. When the Abbasid caliph, Al-Mansur, founded a completely new city for his capital, he chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or City of Peace. Example sentences with "capital of Iraq", translation memory. [17][18], A few authors have suggested older origins for the name, in particular the name Bagdadu or Hudadu that existed in Old Babylonian (spelled with a sign that can represent both bag and hu), and the Babylonian Talmudic name of a place called "Baghdatha". [36], The four surrounding walls of Baghdad were named Kufa, Basra, Khurasan, and Syria; named because their gates pointed in the directions of these destinations. Kilometers and has a total population of 8,765,000 individuals (census, 2016). Bagdad, Baghdad. The process initially focused on the election of neighbourhood councils in the official neighbourhoods, elected by neighbourhood caucuses. [29] It took four years to build (764–768). 3 - st. letter G. 4 - st. letter H. 5 - st. letter D. 6 - st. letter A. Baghdad Capital of Iraq. The 41 member Provincial Council took office in February 2004 and served until national elections held in January 2005, when a new Provincial Council was elected. Beginning in April 2003, the U.S. controlled Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) began the process of creating new functions for these. [83] It is characterized by the iconic clock tower which was donated by George V. The entire area is submitted to the UNESCO World Heritage Site Tentative list.[84]. In Meri, J.W. 22.2% of the total population of the country resides in Baghdad. [12], Arab authors, realizing the pre-Islamic origins of Baghdad's name, generally looked for its roots in Middle Persian. [111] A plan was proposed by a Government agency to rebuild a tourist island in 2008. flashcards on Quizlet. Guy Le Strange, "Baghdad During the Abbasid Caliphate from Contemporary Arabic and Persian", pg 10. Buy Social Capital of Iraq by online on Amazon.ae at best prices. [57] Four great libraries were established in Baghdad during this period. Look up the German to English translation of capital of Iraq in the PONS online dictionary. According to the traveler Ibn Battuta, Baghdad was one of the largest cities, not including the damage it has received. At this point, Baghdad was ruled by the Ilkhanate, a breakaway state of the Mongol Empire, ruling from Iran. [128] Institutions offering cultural education in Baghdad include The Music and Ballet School of Baghdad and the Institute of Fine Arts Baghdad. "Ottoman administration of Iraq, 1890–1908." Persian culture and language dominate the city, but the city is also the meeting point of many ethnic and linguistic groups. The governorate council is responsible for the governorate-wide policy. They ruled as Sultans in the name of the Abbasid caliphs (they saw themselves as being part of the Abbasid regime). For a time, Baghdad had been the largest city in the Middle East. Tughril Beg saw himself as the protector of the Abbasid Caliphs.[60]. Solve word puzzles to develop logical and creative thinking, to … The palace governor lived in the latter part of the building and the commander of the guards in the front. [31] Leo is associated with fire and symbolises productivity, pride, and expansion. Each neighbourhood process ultimately ended with a final meeting where candidates for the new neighbourhood councils identified themselves and asked their neighbours to vote for them. When Mansur heard the story, he became very joyful, for legend has it, he was called Miklas as a child. ed. Each gate had double doors that were made of iron; the doors were so heavy it took several men to open and close them. Between 1623 and 1638, it returned to Iranian rule before falling back into Ottoman hands. Although some of the princes of the previous Umayyad dynasty had begun to gather and translate Greek scientific literature, the Abbasids were the first to foster Greek learning on a large scale. Iraq , officially the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق‎ Jumhūriīyah al-ʿIrāq; Kurdish: کۆماری عێراق‎ Komarî Êraq), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. [112] In late 2009, a construction plan was proposed to rebuild the heart of Baghdad, but the plan was never realized because corruption was involved in it. Many of the Abbasid caliphs were patrons of learning and enjoyed collecting both ancient and contemporary literature. This style of urban planning contrasted with Ancient Greek and Roman urban planning, in which cities are designed as squares or rectangles with streets intersecting each other at right angles. [citation needed], This article is about the capital of Iraq. In 1991 and 2003, the Gulf War and the 2003 invasion of Iraq caused significant damage to Baghdad's transportation, power, and sanitary infrastructure as the US-led coalition forces launched massive aerial assaults in the city in the two wars. This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 20:20. The Nezamiyeh was founded by the Persian Nizam al-Mulk, who was vizier of two early Seljuk sultans. The next step was to have each of the nine district councils elect representatives from their membership to serve on the 37 member Baghdad City Council. Fast and free shipping free returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase. Al-Iraq, Irak, Iraq, Republic of Iraq - a republic in the Middle East in western Asia; the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia was in the area now known as Iraq. [63], On 10 February 1258, Baghdad was captured by the Mongols led by Hulegu, a grandson of Chingiz Khan (Genghis Khan), during the siege of Baghdad. Beyond the outer wall was a water-filled moat. Hello Select your address Black Friday Deals Best Sellers Gift Ideas Electronics Customer Service Books New Releases Home Computers Gift Cards Coupons Sell متن‌های پهلوی. [9][19][20] Some scholars suggested Aramaic derivations.[9]. On 31 May, after the resulting Anglo-Iraqi War and after Rashid Ali and his government had fled, the Mayor of Baghdad surrendered to British and Commonwealth forces. The basic framework of the city consists of two large semicircles about 19 km (12 mi) in diameter. [99] Even at night, temperatures in summer are seldom below 24 °C (75 °F). By the 11th century, "Baghdad" became almost the exclusive name for the world-renowned metropolis. capital and largest city of Iraq; located on the Tigris River; "Baghdad is one of the great cities of the Muslim world" stemming. [129], Priceless collection of artifacts in the National Museum of Iraq was looted by the Iraqi citizens during the 2003 US-led invasion. Tehran: Balkh (نشر بلخ). Abu Hanifah was the counter of the bricks and he developed a canal, which brought water to the work site for both human consumption and the manufacture of the bricks. [73] The Nuttall Encyclopedia reports the 1907 population of Baghdad as 185,000. They chose a site north of the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon, and on 30 July 762 the caliph Al-Mansur commissioned the construction of the city. The monument was opened in 1983, and was designed by the Iraqi architect Saman Kamal and the Iraqi sculptor and artist Ismail Fatah Al Turk. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com. Many of these libraries were private collections intended only for the use of the owners and their immediate friends, but the libraries of the caliphs and other officials soon took on a public or a semi-public character. [25] Mansur loved the site so much he is quoted saying: "This is indeed the city that I am to found, where I am to live, and where my descendants will reign afterward". Includes free vocabulary trainer, verb tables and pronunciation function. [57] The last two were examples of madrasa or theological college libraries. We have 2 answers for the crossword clue Capital of Iraq. 2 - st. letter A. King Faisal II, former Prime Minister Nuri as-Said, former Regent Prince 'Abd al-Ilah, members of the royal family, and others were brutally killed during the coup. Over 100,000 construction workers came to survey the plans; many were distributed salaries to start the building of the city. Among the notable features of Baghdad during this period were its exceptional libraries. Baghdad, also spelled Bagdad, Arabic Baghdād, formerly Madīnat al-Salām (Arabic: “City of Peace”), city, capital of Iraq and capital of Baghdad governorate, central Iraq. Soon after,[62] by December 1058, a Shi'i adhān (call to prayer) was implemented in Baghdad and a khutbah (sermon) was delivered in the name of the Fatimid Imam-Caliph. Baghdad's record highest temperature of 51.8 °C (125.2 °F) was reached on 28 July 2020. Baghdad is the most populated city of Iraq and the 2 nd largest city in Western Asia; the first is Tehran (the capital of Iran). Many of the victim's bodies were then dragged through the streets of Baghdad. This, in addition to housing several key academic institutions, including the House of Wisdom, as well as hosting a multiethnic and multireligious environment, garnered the city a worldwide reputation as the "Centre of Learning". In 1401, Baghdad was again sacked, by Timur. Arbil, the capital of Iraq Kurdistan region, lies 350 km north of the capital, Baghdad. Once all 88 (later increased to 89) neighbourhood councils were in place, each neighbourhood council elected representatives from among their members to serve on one of the city's nine district councils. "by Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. Read more about the crossword clue 'Capital of Iraq'. The Muslim historian al-Tabari reported an ancient prediction by Christian … Wahlperiode Drucksache IV/3672, "Baghdad: The City in Verse, translated and edited by Reuven Snir", "Baghdad selected as new member of 'UNESCO Creative Cities Network, "Five women confront a new Iraq | csmonitor.com", "Gunmen storm independent radio station in latest attack against media in Iraq", "Occupation and international humanitarian law: Questions and answers – ICRC", Miastoprojekt goes abroad: the transfer of architectural labour from socialist Poland to Iraq (1958–1989), Iraq Image – Baghdad Satellite Observation, National Commission for Investment in Iraq, Description of the original layout of Baghdad, Ethnic and sectarian map of Baghdad – Healingiraq, UAE Investors Keen On Taking Part In Baghdad Renaissance Project, Iraq Inter-Agency Information & Analysis Unit, An unrecognised or partially-recognised nation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Baghdad&oldid=991198286, Populated places established in the 8th century, Articles with incomplete citations from July 2020, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pages move-protected due to vandalism, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles lacking reliable references from December 2017, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2019, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Articles needing additional references from June 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Articles with dead external links from July 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Siege of Baghdad (1625), Ottoman–Safavid Wars, Masjid Al-Kadhimain is a shrine that is located in the, Salihiya Residential area – situated off Al Sinak bridge in central Baghdad, surrounded by Al- Mansur Hotel in the north and Al-Rasheed hotel in the south, Al Khat al Sare'a – Mohammed al Qasim (high speed lane) – runs through Baghdad, north–south, Al Sinaa Street (Industry Street) runs by the University of Technology – centre of the computer trade in Baghdad, "Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-135" by Ibn Battuta. [21][22][unreliable source?] It connects the center to the southern neighborhood of Dora. These are mainly highly educated Iraqis who were from Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, and Basra city in the south of Iraq. [76] However, the Iran–Iraq War of the 1980s was a difficult time for the city, as money was diverted by Saddam Hussein to the army and thousands of residents were killed. [9] The site where the city of Baghdad developed has been populated for millennia. Le Strange, G. (n.d.). Suraiya Faroqhi, Halil İnalcık, Donald Quataert (1997). The land on which the city is built is almost entirely flat and low-lying, being of alluvial origin due to the periodic large floods which have occurred on the river. [100][101] The humidity is typically under 50% in summer due to Baghdad's distance from the marshy southern Iraq and the coasts of Persian Gulf, and dust storms from the deserts to the west are a normal occurrence during the summer. More visible efforts at reconstruction through private development, like architect and urban designer Hisham N. Ashkouri's Baghdad Renaissance Plan and the Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center have also been made. Today, all that remains of Ctesiphon is the shrine town of Salman Pak, just to the south of Greater Baghdad. Famous Arab poets and singers such as Nizar Qabbani, Umm Kulthum, Fairuz, Salah Al-Hamdani, Ilham al-Madfai and others have performed for the city. [127] The live theatre scene received a boost during the 1990s, when UN sanctions limited the import of foreign films. Baghdad. The Sultan of Baghdad, Abu Said Bahadur Khan, was a Tatar king who embraced Islam.[28]. [57] This would prove to be the last great library built by the caliphs of Baghdad. In 1920, Baghdad became the capital of the British Mandate of Mesopotamia with several architectural and planning projects commissioned to reinforce this administration. In Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate (p. 9). As of the end of 2014, only 1,500 Assyrians remained in Dora.[77]. The bricks used to make the city were 18 inches (460 mm) on all four sides. The Prime Minister of Iraq heads the executive branch of the government and selects a Council of Ministers. [119], Iraq's Tourism Board is also seeking investors to develop a "romantic" island on the River Tigris in Baghdad that was once a popular honeymoon spot for newlywed Iraqis. The original design shows a single ring of residential and commercial structures along the inside of the city walls, but the final construction added another ring inside the first. It was named after the 10th-century classical Iraqi poet Al-Mutanabbi. During the rule of the Ottoman Empire in the later centuries, Baghdad served only as a provincial capital. The first step in the establishment of the system of local government for Baghdad Province was the election of the Baghdad Provincial Council. [110], Most Iraqi reconstruction efforts have been devoted to the restoration and repair of badly damaged urban infrastructure. [79][80] Eventually, Paul Bremer, Director of the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq from 11 May 2003 to 28 June 2004 ordered protection of the zoo and U.S. engineers helped to reopen the facility. Ctesiphon itself had replaced and absorbed Seleucia, the first capital of the Seleucid Empire, which had earlier replaced the city of Babylon. At the lowest level, the neighbourhood councils, each council represents an average of 75,000 people. From 1851 to 1852 and from 1861 to 1867, Baghdad was governed, under the Ottoman Empire by Mehmed Namık Pasha. In its early years, the city was known as a deliberate reminder of an expression in the Qur'an, when it refers to Paradise. by Cetinsaya, Gokhan. [70] Baghdad became a provincial capital controlled by the Mongol Jalayirid (1400–1411), Turkic Kara Koyunlu (1411–1469), Turkic Ak Koyunlu (1469–1508), and the Iranian Safavid (1508–1534) dynasties. [40], Within a generation of its founding, Baghdad became a hub of learning and commerce. During the 2003 occupation of Iraq, AFN Iraq ("Freedom Radio") broadcast news and entertainment within Baghdad, among other locations. Mansur believed that Baghdad was the perfect city to be the capital of the Islamic empire under the Abbasids. [41] Baghdad was likely the largest city in the world from shortly after its foundation until the 930s, when it tied with Córdoba. The project would include a six-star hotel, spa, an 18-hole golf course and a country club. Baghdad capital of Iraq beautiful city Tehran capital of Iran watch full video _https://youtu.be/du1l5tj4KUA [57] It continued to operate even after the coming of the Mongols in 1258. On 14 July 1958, members of the Iraqi Army, under Abd al-Karim Qasim, staged a coup to topple the Kingdom of Iraq. The importance of the city, however, waned following its capture by Hülegü, a Mongol leader, in 1258. The Tigris splits Baghdad in half, with the eastern half being called "Risafa" and the Western half known as "Karkh". The Federation Council and the Council of Representatives compose the legislative branch of the government. Lows below freezing occur a couple of times per year on average. It has largest city in the country, with 6,431,839 inhabitants and one of the most populated in the Middle East after Cairo and Tehran. word on "B". [81], Al-Shaheed Monument, also known as the Martyr's Memorial, is a monument dedicated to the Iraqi soldiers who died in the Iran–Iraq War. ", Stanek, L., Miastoprojekt goes abroad: the transfer of architectural labour from socialist Poland to Iraq (1958–1989), The Journal of Architecture, Volume 17, Issue 3, 2012, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, substantial loss of cultural heritage and historical artifacts, Learn how and when to remove this template message, staged a coup to topple the Kingdom of Iraq, List of neighborhoods and districts in Baghdad, Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center, "Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey", "Cities and urban areas in Iraq with population over 100,000", Vienna unbeatable as world's most liveable city, Baghdad still worst, "BAGHDAD i. Information and translations of capital of iraq in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. The city spreads out on both the banks of the river. Water exists on both the north and south ends of the city, allowing all households to have a plentiful supply, which was very uncommon during this time. ***** - capital of iraq. Several estimates suggest that the city contained over a million inhabitants at its peak. The capital of Iraq is Baghdad. The zoological park used to be the largest in the Middle East. [130], Baghdad is home to some of the most successful football (soccer) teams in Iraq, the biggest being Al-Shorta (Police), Al-Quwa Al-Jawiya (Airforce club), Al-Zawra'a, and Talaba (Students). The residents are mostly Hanbal. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. [120] This project not only addresses the urgent need for new residential units in Baghdad but also acts as a real symbol of progress in the war torn city, as Baghdad has not seen projects of this scale for decades.[121]. Iraqi Airways, the national airline of Iraq, has its headquarters on the grounds of Baghdad International Airport in Baghdad. Some of the important cultural institutions in the city include the National Theater, which was looted during the 2003 invasion of Iraq, but efforts are underway to restore the theatre. The National Museum of Iraq, containing a collection initiated by British … This outer wall was protected by a solid glacis, which is made out of bricks and quicklime. The Muslim historian al-Tabari reported an ancient prediction by Christian monks that a lord named Miklas would one day build a spectacular city around the area of Baghdad. Prior to the Gulf War, multiple international schools operated in Baghdad, including: Baghdad has always played a significant role in the broader Arab cultural sphere, contributing several significant writers, musicians and visual artists. Multiple Iraqi parties are in discussions as to whether the arches should remain as historical monuments or be dismantled. As early as 2003, about 20 percent of the population of the city was the result of mixed marriages between Shi'ites and Sunnis: they are often referred to as "Sushis". For poetry written about Baghdad, see Reuven Snir (ed. [109] Following the sectarian violence in Iraq between the Sunni and Shia militia groups during the U.S. occupation of Iraq, the city's population became overwhelmingly Shia. Baghdad is the capital of Iraq. Look up the English to German translation of capital of Iraq in the PONS online dictionary. Rainfall has been recorded on fewer than half a dozen occasions at this time of year and has never exceeded 1 millimetre (0.04 in). [citation needed], The Golden Gate Palace, the residence of the caliph and his family, was in the middle of Baghdad, in the central square. These official subdivisions of the city served as administrative centres for the delivery of municipal services but until 2003 had no political function. The square developed during the Ottoman era as a military barracks. [65] The sack of Baghdad put an end to the Abbasid Caliphate. The INSO plays primarily classical European music, as well as original compositions based on Iraqi and Arab instruments and music. Hi there! The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. Necessity to organize the Kurdish home and British war planes rained down outside Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, lighting up the night sky. Best Answer for Capital Of Iraq Crossword Clue. Iran launched a number of missile attacks against Baghdad in retaliation for Saddam Hussein's continuous bombardments of Tehran's residential districts. 1. capital and largest city of Iraq; located on the Tigris River Familiarity information: CAPITAL OF IRAQ used as a noun is very rare. The city is not only the political capital of Iraq but also the country’s cultural and economic capital. In Pahlavi Script and Language (Arsacid and Sassanid) نامه پهلوانی: آموزش خط و زبان پهلوی اشکانی و ساسانی (second ed., p. 109). "Yakut: Baghdad under the Abbasids, c. 1000CE". Baghdad eclipsed Ctesiphon, the capital of the Sassanians, which was located some 30 km (19 mi) to the southeast. New infrastructure including modern sewerage, water, and highway facilities were built during this period. Located along the Tigris, near the ruins of the Akkadian city of Babylon and the ancient Iranian capital of Ctesiphon, Baghdad was founded in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. It is the historic center of Baghdadi book-selling, a street filled with bookstores and outdoor book stalls. After the fall of the Umayyads, the first Muslim dynasty, the victorious Abbasid rulers wanted their own capital from which they could rule. 22 October 2020 The New York Times Mini. The Seljuks were a clan of the Oghuz Turks from Central Asia that converted to the Sunni branch of Islam. The following is a selection (rather than a complete list) of these neighborhoods: The city is located on a vast plain bisected by the Tigris river. It accounts for about 40% of the national GDP. Today, it is a place where the citizens of Baghdad find leisure such as reading poetry in gazebos. Points of interest include the National Museum of Iraq whose collection of artifacts was looted during the 2003 invasion, and the iconic Hands of Victory arches. The eastern and the western halves of the city are called Risafa and Karkh, respectively. It was made of brick and marble. At its peak, it was regarded as one of the greatest cities in the world. Capital of Iraq The capital of Iraq is Baghdad. The population of Baghdad, as of 2016, is approximately 8,765,000, making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world, and the second largest city in Western Asia. In addition, the palace was near other mansions and officer's residences. Baghdad was a busy city during the day and had many attractions at night. Within a short time, Baghdad evolved into a significant cultural, commercial, and intellectual center of the Muslim world. This three tier system of local government connected the people of Baghdad to the central government through their representatives from the neighbourhood, through the district, and up to the city council. In recent years, the city has been frequently subjected to insurgent attacks, resulting in a substantial loss of cultural heritage and historical artifacts as well. The President of Iraq serves as the head of state. [9] They suggested various meanings, the most common of which was "bestowed by God". Baghdad is the capital of Iraq. The city has also had a strong tradition of horse racing ever since World War I, known to Baghdadis simply as 'Races'. [34] In fact, by the time of Harun al-Rashid, Baghdad had a few thousand hammams. There is also a private radio station called "Dijlah" (named after the Arabic word for the Tigris River) that was created in 2004 as Iraq's first independent talk radio station. The dialect of Arabic spoken in Baghdad today differs from that of other large urban centres in Iraq, having features more characteristic of nomadic Arabic dialects (Versteegh, The Arabic Language). At that time, three possible locations had been identified, but no estimates of cost or completion date were given. South African Lawrence Anthony and some of the zoo keepers cared for the animals and fed the carnivores with donkeys they had bought locally. The city was also home to a large Jewish community and regularly visited by Sikh pilgrims. Also in 2003, the minor riot in the city (which took place on 21 July) caused some disturbance in the population. Definition of capital of iraq, with etymology, pronunciation (phonetic and audio), synonyms, antonyms, derived terms and more about the word capital of iraq. 1990-10-08 Photo size: 7 - st. letter D. Crosswords puzzles, an affordable and effective way to train the intellect, increase knowledge. Surrounding the palace was an esplanade, a waterside building, in which only the caliph could come riding on horseback. [113], The Baghdad Eye, a 198 m (650 ft) tall Ferris wheel, was proposed for Baghdad in August 2008. Baghdad has suffered severely from visitations of the plague and cholera,[71] and sometimes two-thirds of its population has been wiped out.[72]. it Il presidente della FIDE (Fédération Internationale des Echecs), Kirsan Iliumzhinov, ha deciso di assegnare l'organizzazione dell'incontro valido per il campionato mondiale di scacchi-FIDE a Bagdad, capitale dell'Iraq, sede del regime di Saddam Hussein. [35] In the center of the city lay the mosque, as well as headquarters for guards. During the Mandate, Baghdad's substantial Jewish community comprised a quarter of the city's population. Mackensen, Ruth Stellhorn . [102], Annual rainfall, almost entirely confined to the period from November through March, averages approximately 150 mm (5.91 in), but has been as high as 338 mm (13.31 in) and as low as 37 mm (1.46 in). A concise Pahlavi Dictionary (p. 23, 16). The roundness points to the fact that it was based on Arabic script. Learn term:baghdad = capital of iraq. The word that solves this crossword puzzle is 7 letters long and begins with B Baghdad accounts for 22.2 per cent of Iraq's population and 40 per cent of the country's gross domestic product (PPP). During the day, the thermometers can shoot up to 60 ° C in the shade and at night go down to 15 ° C. Moisture is also very low due to the distance separating the city from the Persian Gulf, which helps form the common summer dusty storms shaken from the desert. The strategic location of Baghdad on the Tigris river’s trading routes and the fact that it had sufficient water resource despite the dry climate, made Baghdad a prosperous city. There are a number of other locations in the wider region whose names are compounds of the word bagh, including Baghlan and Bagram in Afghanistan, Baghshan in Iran,[16] and Baghdati in Georgia, which likely share the same etymological origins. With the recognition of Iraq as an independent state (formerly the British Mandate of Mesopotamia) in 1932, Baghdad gradually regained some of its former prominence as a significant center of Arabic culture, with a population variously estimated at 6 or over 7 million. Another was established by Sabur ibn Ardashir in 991 or 993 for the literary men and scholars who frequented his academy. The distance between these gates was a little less than 2.4 km (1.5 mi). Baghdad Capital of Iraq. [51][52][53] Baghdad was also a significant center of Islamic religious learning, with Al-Jahiz contributing to the formation of Mu'tazili theology, as well as Al-Tabari culminating the scholarship on the Quranic exegesis. [38][39] The two designers who were hired by Al-Mansur to plan the city's design were Naubakht, a Zoroastrian who also determined that the date of the foundation of the city would be astrologically auspicious, and Mashallah, a Jew from Khorasan, Iran. The city's population grew from an estimated 145,000 in 1900 to 580,000 in 1950. The circular design of the city was a direct reflection of the traditional Persian Sasanian urban design. They chose a site north of the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon, and on 30 July 762[23] the caliph Al-Mansur commissioned the construction of the city. Below is a massive list of capital of iraq words - that is, words related to capital of iraq. by Rawlinson, George. The judicial branch of the Iraqi government comprises of the Supreme Court and other federal courts and legal institutions. Baghdad has a hot desert climate (Köppen BWh), featuring extremely hot, prolonged, dry summers and mild to cool, slightly wet, short winters. By Oishimaya Sen Nag on September 26 2018 in World Facts. National Museum of Iraq. [64] Many quarters were ruined by fire, siege, or looting. It was only after 1920 when the city became the capital of Iraq that it regained its lost prominence. [82], Al-Shaheed, (Martyr's Monument), Zawra Park, Baghdad, The Victory Arch (officially known as the Swords of Qādisīyah, Qushla or Qishla is a public square and the historical complex located in Rusafa neighborhood at the riverbank of Tigris. [69] When his forces took Baghdad, he spared almost no one, and ordered that each of his soldiers bring back two severed human heads. As of 2016, the population of the city was 8,765,000 people. We've seen this … Verifique traduções de "capital of Iraq" para Português. 1 - st. letter B. The city has Shia, Sunni, Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriacs, Armenians and mixed neighborhoods. In 1534, Baghdad was captured by the Ottoman Turks. As within the city, the district councils then elected representatives from among their members to serve on the 35 member Baghdad Regional Council. The Metropolis of Baghdad encompasses an area of 204.2 square km. Radio Dijlah offices, in the Jamia neighborhood of Baghdad, have been attacked on several occasions. [32] Within the city there were many parks, gardens, villas, and promenades. Marble was also used to make buildings throughout the city, and marble steps led down to the river's edge. Rashid Ali installed a pro-German and pro-Italian government to replace the pro-British government of Regent Abdul Ilah. with free interactive flashcards. Despite the government's promise to resettle Sunnis displaced by the violence, little has been done to bring this about. The city was designed as a circle about 2 km (1.2 mi) in diameter, leading it to be known as the "Round City". Mackenzie, D. (1971). Before the Mongol Invasion – Encyclopædia Iranica", "Persimmons surviving winter in Bagdati, Georgia", "ما معنى (بغداد)؟ العراق العالم العربي الجغرافيا", When Baghdad was centre of the scientific world, "syriacs during the islamic golden age - Google Search", "Baghdad in Its Golden Age (762–1300) | 25–26 April 2014", "Baghdad Sacked by the Mongols | History Today", Annals of history: Invaders: Destroying Baghdad, New Book Looks at Old-Style Central Asian Despotism, The Fertile Crescent, 1800-1914: a documentary economic history, An economic and social history of the Ottoman Empire, "The architecture of the British Mandate in Iraq: nation-building and state creation", "Iraq crisis: The last Christians of Dora", "Then and Now: A New Chapter for Baghdad Book Market". The city of Baghdad soon became so large that it had to be divided into three judicial districts: Madinat al-Mansur (the Round City), al-Sharqiyya (Karkh) and Askar al-Mahdi (on the West Bank).[27]. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandaeans, Circassians, Sabians and Kawliya. The wall itself was about 44 m thick at the base and about 12 m thick at the top. [54] capital of iraq pronunciation - How to properly say capital of iraq. [41] Baytul-Hikmah or the "House of Wisdom" was among the most well known academies,[42] and had the largest selection of books in the world by the middle of the 9th century. It grew fast and became a modern metropolis. By the 10th century, the city's population was between 1.2 million[58] and 2 million. It … [9] Modern scholars generally tend to favor this etymology,[9] which views the word as a compound of bagh () "god" and dād () "given",[13][14] In Old Persian the first element can be traced to boghu and is related to Slavic bog "god",[9][15] A similar term in Middle Persian is the name Mithradāt (Mihrdād in New Persian), known in English by its Hellenistic form Mithridates, meaning "Given by Mithra" (dāt is the more archaic form of dād, related to Latin dat and English donor[9]). Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, stands on the banks of the Tigris. The Republican Palace of Baghdad serves as the official residence of the country’s Prime Minister while the Radwaniyah Palace is the residence of the President of Iraq. As before, the representatives to the Provincial Council were elected by their peers from the lower councils in numbers proportional to the population of the districts they represent. On street corners, storytellers engaged crowds with tales such as those later told in Arabian Nights. Mansur assembled engineers, surveyors, and art constructionists from around the world to come together and draw up plans for the city. It would surpass even Constantinople in prosperity and size.[56]. [57] Unfortunately, this second library was plundered and burned by the Seljuks only seventy years after it was established. As of 2018[update], Baghdad was listed as one of the least hospitable places to live, ranked by Mercer as the world's worst major city for quality of life. The University of Baghdad is the largest university in Iraq and the second largest in the Arab world. Firdos Square is a public open space in Baghdad and the location of two of the best-known hotels, the Palestine Hotel and the Sheraton Ishtar, which are both also the tallest buildings in Baghdad. In the summer, from June through August, the average maximum temperature is as high as 44 °C (111 °F) and accompanied by sunshine. Moreover, entry fees were usually so low that almost everyone could afford them. In 1040, they destroyed the Ghaznavids, taking over their land and in 1055, Tughril Beg, the leader of the Seljuks, took over Baghdad. The masterplans of the city (1967, 1973) were delivered by the Polish planning office Miastoprojekt-Kraków, mediated by Polservice. The city historically had a predominantly Sunni population, but by the early 21st century around 82% of the city's population were Iraqi Shi'ites. It was built under the supervision of the Barmakids. The Sasanian city of Gur in Fars, built 500 years before Baghdad, is nearly identical in its general circular design, radiating avenues, and the government buildings and temples at the centre of the city. "History of the Moof Abu Hanifa and its school", "DefenseLink News Article: Soldier Helps to Form Democracy in Baghdad", "Zafaraniya Residents Get Water Project Update – DefendAmerica News Article", "Basics of democracy in Iraq include frustration", "Leaders Highlight Successes of Baghdad Operation – DefendAmerica News Article", "Climatologie mensuelle en juillet 2020 à Baghdad | climatologie depuis 1900 – Infoclimat", "Baghdad Soars to 125 Blistering Degrees, Its Highest Temperature on Record", "Afp.google.com, First snow for 100 years falls on Baghdad", "World Weather Information Service – Baghdad", "Baghdad Climate Guide to the Average Weather & Temperatures, with Graphs Elucidating Sunshine and Rainfall Data & Information about Wind Speeds & Humidity", "Monthly weather forecast and climate for Baghdad, Iraq", "Baghdad plans to build giant Ferris wheel", "Iraq plans giant Ferris wheel, hopes to lure tourists to Baghdad", Wikinews: Iraq plans 'Baghdad Eye' to draw in tourists, "Obama ad attacks McCain for Baghdad Ferris wheel project being built on land leased by a Democratic Party donor", "New Ferris wheel attracts leisure-starved Iraqis", "Baghdad Investment: Creating (1824) housing units in Baghdad", Arrêté du 22 novembre 1990 complétant l'arrêté du 23 août 1990 fixant la liste des établissements d'enseignement prévue à l'article 1er du décret no 90-469 du 31 mai 1990, Deutscher Bundestag 4. As the capital of Iraq, Baghdad hosts the offices and residences of the federal government. [79], Grand Festivities Square is the main square where public celebrations are held and is also the home to three important monuments commemorating Iraqi's fallen soldiers and victories in war; namely Al-Shaheed Monument, the Victory Arch and the Unknown Soldier's Monument. [citation needed] Notable scholars based in Baghdad during this time include translator Hunayn ibn Ishaq, mathematician al-Khwarizmi, and philosopher Al-Kindi. It became the seat of the Qajar dynasty in 1786 and has since grown into a major metropolis and the economic center of Iran. "Historic cities of the Islamic world. Thousands of ancient manuscripts in the National Library were destroyed under Saddam's command. Capital of Iraq. capital of Iraq - capital and largest city of Iraq; located on the Tigris River; "Baghdad is one of the great cities of the Muslim world". Baghdad is also home to the grave of Abu Hanifa where there is a cell and a mosque above it. Its location, on the Tigris River about 330 miles (530 km) from the headwaters of the Persian Gulf, is in the heart of ancient Mesopotamia. Gordon, M.S. [62] Despite his Shi'i inclinations, Al-Basasiri received support from Sunnis and Shi'is alike, for whom opposition to the Saljuq power was a common factor. What does capital of iraq mean? There, local councils were elected from 20 neighbourhoods (Nahia) and these councils elected representatives from their members to serve on six district councils (Qada). (2006). The CPA convened a series of meetings in each neighbourhood to explain local government, to describe the caucus election process and to encourage participants to spread the word and bring friends, relatives and neighbours to subsequent meetings. During this time, in Baghdad, Christians and Shia were tolerated, while Sunnis were treated as enemies. For other uses, see, Palestine Meridian hotel and Ishtar Sheraton hotel, Center of learning (8th to 9th centuries), Stagnation and invasions (10th to 16th centuries), Estimates of total population differ substantially. [61] Not long before the arrival of the Saljuqs in Baghdad, al-Basasiri petitioned to the Fatimid Imam-Caliph al-Mustansir to support him in conquering Baghdad on the Ismaili Imam's behalf. The city of Baghdad is the capital of Iraq. It was founded in 762 as the Abbasid dynasty’s capital city. [37] We last saw the 'Capital of Iraq' clue in The New York Times Mini on Saturday, 07 April 2018. [8], The name Baghdad is pre-Islamic, and its origin is disputed. Municipally, the governorate is divided into 9 municipalities, which have responsibility for local issues. [46][47][48][49][50] These are considered among the fundamental elements that contributed to the flourishing of scholarship in the Medieval Islamic world. [33] There was a large sanitation department, many fountains and public baths, and unlike contemporary European cities at the time, streets were frequently washed free of debris and trash. In the central part of the building, there was a green dome that was 39 m high. The Mustansiriyah madrasa, which owned an exceedingly rich library, was founded by Al-Mustansir, the second last Abbasid caliph, who died in 1242. Listen to the audio pronunciation in several English accents. This was the official name on coins, weights, and other official usage, although the common people continued to use the old name. Qushla and its surroundings is where the historical features and cultural capitals of Baghdad are concentrated, from the Mutanabbi Street, Abbasid-era palace and bridges, Ottoman-era mosques to the Mustansariyah Madrasa. The canals and dykes forming the city's irrigation system were also destroyed. Sultan Ahmad Jalayir fled to Syria, where the Mamluk Sultan Barquq protected him and killed Timur's envoys. As many as 30 movie theatres were reported to have been converted to live stages, producing a wide range of comedies and dramatic productions. The Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra is a government funded symphony orchestra in Baghdad. Regional services, however, are coordinated and carried out by a mayor who oversees the municipalities. This was a good example of the sort of library built up out of the needs and interests of a literary society. Mutanabbi Street is located near the old quarter of Baghdad; at Al Rasheed Street. [24] Mansur believed that Baghdad was the perfect city to be the capital of the Islamic empire under the Abbasids. The number of neighbourhood representatives on a district council is based upon the neighbourhood's population. The Mustansiriya Madrasah was established in 1227 by the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustansir. It has recently come to light that the famed Fatimid da'i, al-Mu'ayyad al-Shirazi, had a direct role in supporting al-Basasiri and helped the general to succeed in taking Mawṣil, Wāsit and Kufa. Baghdad is the capital city of Iraq. In 813, after the death of caliph Al-Amin, the palace was no longer used as the home for the caliph and his family. [66] It has been argued that this marked an end to the Islamic Golden Age and served a blow from which Islamic civilisation never fully recovered.[67]. However, now it is generally considered by Iraqis to be for all of the martyrs of Iraq, especially those allied with Iran and Syria fighting ISIS, not just of the Iran–Iraq War. The nine districts are subdivided into 89 smaller neighborhoods which may make up sectors of any of the districts above. The population of Baghdad, as of 2016, is approximately 8,765,000, making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world, and the second largest city in Western Asia. The city saw relative revival in the latter part of the 18th century, under a Mamluk government. The CIA World Factbook estimated the 2020 population of Baghdad at 7,144,000. In addition, the go-ahead has been given to build numerous architecturally unique skyscrapers along the Tigris that would develop the city's financial centre in Kadhehemiah. Tehran, capital city of Iran at the foot of the Elburz mountain range. Meaning of capital of iraq. [30] July was chosen as the starting time because two astrologers, Naubakht Ahvazi and Mashallah, believed that the city should be built under the sign of the lion, Leo. The community has been subject to kidnappings, death threats, vandalism, and house burnings by Al-Qaeda and other insurgent groups. There are reports of pressures by the Islamists to stop this tradition due to the associated gambling. By the 8th century AD, several villages had developed there, including a Persian[10][11] hamlet called Baghdad, the name which would come to be used for the Abbasid metropolis. The Iraqi Civil War following ISIS' invasion in 2014 caused hundreds of thousands of Iraqi internally displaced people to flee to the city. capital of Iraq translation in English-Italian dictionary. These baths increased public hygiene and served as a way for the religious to perform ablutions as prescribed by Islam. The Seljuks expelled the Buyid dynasty of Shiites that had ruled for some time and took over power and control of Baghdad. The historic "Assyrian Quarter" of the city, Dora, which boasted a population of 150,000 Assyrians in 2003, made up over 3% of the capital's Assyrian population then.

capital of iraq

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